S-Nitrosoglutathione inactivation of the mitochondrial and cytosolic BCAT proteins: S-nitrosation and S-thiolation
Coles, S. J., Easton, P., Sharrod, H., Hutson, S. M., Hancock, J. T., Patel , V. and Conway, M. E. (2009) S-Nitrosoglutathione inactivation of the mitochondrial and cytosolic BCAT proteins: S-nitrosation and S-thiolation. Biochemistry, 48 (3). pp. 645-656. ISSN 0006-2960 Available from: http://eprints.uwe.ac.uk/13767
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Publisher's URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/bi801805h
Specific proteins with reactive thiol(ate) groups are susceptible to nitric oxide (NO) modification, which can result in S-nitrosation, S-thiolation, or disulfide bond formation. In the present study the effect of NO modification on the functionality of human mitochondrial and cytosolic branched-chain aminotransferases (hBCATm and hBCATc, respectively) was investigated. Here, the NO reactive agents, S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO), S-nitroso-N-acetyl-dl-penacillamine, and sodium nitroprusside, inactivated both isoforms in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, low concentrations of GSNO caused a time-dependent loss in BCAT activity (50 +/- 3% and 77 +/- 2% for hBCATc and hBCATm, respectively) correlating with the loss of four and one to two thiol groups, respectively, confirming the thiols as targets for NO modification. Analysis of GSNO-modified hBCATc by quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry identified a major peak containing three NO adducts and a minor peak equivalent to two NO adducts and one glutathione (GSH) molecule, the latter confirmed by Western blot analysis. Moreover, prolonged exposure or increased levels of GSNO caused increased S-glutathionylation and partial dimerization of hBCATc, suggesting a possible shift from regulation by NO to one of adaptation during nitrosated stress. Although GSNO inactivated hBCATm, neither S-nitrosation, S-glutathionylation, nor dimerization could be detected, suggesting differential mechanisms of regulation through NO between isoforms in the mitochondria and cytosol. Reversal of GSNO-modified hBCAT using GSH alone was only partial, and complete reactivation was only possible using the glutaredoxin/GSH system (97 +/- 4% and 91 +/- 3% for hBCATc and hBCATm, respectively), implicating the importance of a full physiological redox system for activation/inactivation. To conclude, these results clearly demonstrate distinct functional/mechanistic responses to GSNO modification between BCAT isoforms and offer intriguing comparisons between the BCAT proteins and the respective cytosolic and mitochondrial hTrx and hGrx proteins.