Changing commuters' behaviour using rewards: A study of rush-hour avoidance

Ben-Elia, E. and Ettema, D. (2011) Changing commuters' behaviour using rewards: A study of rush-hour avoidance. Transportation Research Part F Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, 14 (5). pp. 354-368. ISSN 1369-8478 Available from:

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In a 13-week field study conducted in The Netherlands, participants were provided with daily rewards – monetary and in-kind, in order to encourage them to avoid driving during the morning rush-hour. Participants could earn a reward (money or credits to keep a Smartphone handset), by driving to work earlier or later, by switching to another mode or by teleworking. The collected data, complemented with pre and post measurement surveys, were analyzed using longitudinal techniques and mixed logistic regression. The results assert that the reward is the main extrinsic motivation for discouraging rush-hour driving. The monetary reward exhibits diminishing sensitivity, whereas the Smartphone has endowment qualities. Although the reward influences the motivation to avoid the rush-hour, the choice how to change behavior is influenced by additional factors including education, scheduling, habitual behavior, attitudes, and travel information availability.

Item Type:Article
Uncontrolled Keywords:attitudes, behavior change, congestion, habitual behavior, information, motivation, reward
Faculty/Department:Faculty of Environment and Technology
ID Code:14799
Deposited By: J. Triggle
Deposited On:02 Jun 2011 14:09
Last Modified:02 Dec 2016 15:04

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