Changing commuters' behavior using rewards: A study of rush-hour avoidance
Ben-Elia, E. and Ettema, D. (2011) Changing commuters' behavior using rewards: A study of rush-hour avoidance. Transportation Research Part F Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, 14 (5). pp. 354-368. ISSN 1369-8478
Publisher's URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.trf.2011.04.003
In a 13-week field study conducted in The Netherlands, participants were provided with daily rewards – monetary and in-kind, in order to encourage them to avoid driving during the morning rush-hour. Participants could earn a reward (money or credits to keep a Smartphone handset), by driving to work earlier or later, by switching to another mode or by teleworking. The collected data, complemented with pre and post measurement surveys, were analyzed using longitudinal techniques and mixed logistic regression. The results assert that the reward is the main extrinsic motivation for discouraging rush-hour driving. The monetary reward exhibits diminishing sensitivity, whereas the Smartphone has endowment qualities. Although the reward influences the motivation to avoid the rush-hour, the choice how to change behavior is influenced by additional factors including education, scheduling, habitual behavior, attitudes, and travel information availability.
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