Determination of catecholamines in urine using hydrophilic interaction chromatography with electrochemical detection
Kumar, A., Hart, J. P. and McCalley, D. V. (2011) Determination of catecholamines in urine using hydrophilic interaction chromatography with electrochemical detection. Journal of Chromatography A, 1218 (25). pp. 3854-3861. ISSN 00219673
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Publisher's URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2011.04.034
The determination of catecholamines in urine was investigated using hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) as an alternative to the commonly used reversed-phase (RP) method. A number of different approaches were explored, including per-aqueous liquid chromatography (PALC), and HILIC using bare silica, bonded amide and zwitterionic phases. The bonded phases gave superior results in terms of both peak shape and selectivity. The mechanism of the HILIC separation was investigated particularly with respect to the contribution of ion exchange to retention. The electrochemical detection of catecholamines was studied and optimised in typical HILIC mobile phases that contain high concentrations of acetonitrile. HILIC offered a number of advantages over the conventional RP approach, giving good retention of the solutes without use of ion pair reagents, the absence of which also would facilitate detection by mass spectrometry. HILIC used in conjunction with solid phase extraction based on RP also gives orthogonal separation mechanisms in the cleanup and analysis steps. Furthermore, good recoveries from the cleanup stage were obtained, as high concentrations of acetonitrile can be used as eluting solvent that are fully compatible with HILIC, and lipophilic impurities are eluted close to the void volume of the HILIC column.