Policing football crowds in England and Wales: A model of ‘good practice’?
Stott, C., Livingstone, A. and Hoggett, J. (2008) Policing football crowds in England and Wales: A model of ‘good practice’? Policing & Society, 18 (3). pp. 258-281. ISSN 1043-9463
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Publisher's URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10439460802091641
There have been important developments in psychological theory of crowd dynamics (Reicher 2001). When this body of knowledge has been combined with operational policing it has been associated with conflict reduction in the context of high risk football matches with an international dimension (e.g., Stott et al. 2007). This paper extends this body of work by reporting upon a longitudinal observational study of policing within the environment of domestic football in England and Wales. This paper focuses upon the potential impact policing has upon crowd dynamics and ‘disorder’. On the basis of the analysis recommendations are developed with regard to understandings of ‘risk’ to public order, strategy and tactics, operational structure, role and function of officers and multiagency cooperation. This paper concludes by exploring the relevance of psychological theory for models of good practice, policy making and training in the arena of the policing of domestic football in England and Wales.