The impacts of household structure on the individual stochastic travel and out of-home activity time budgets
Susilo, Y. and Avineri, E. (2012) The impacts of household structure on the individual stochastic travel and out of-home activity time budgets. In: 91st Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C., USA, January 2012. Washington, D.C.: Transportation Research Board Available from: http://eprints.uwe.ac.uk/17077
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Publisher's URL: http://amonline.trb.org/1s90il/1s90il/1
The amount of time households and individuals spend on travelling can be seen as a result of complex daily interactions between household members, influenced by opportunities and constraints which vary from day to day. Extending the deterministic concept of travel time budget to a stochastic term, and applying a Stochastic Frontier Model to a dataset from the 2004 UK National Travel Survey, this study examines the unseen stochastic limit and the variations of the individual and household travel time and out-of-home activity duration overtime – concepts associated with travel time budgets. The results show that most individuals may have not have reached their limit yet to travel and may still be able to spend further time in travel activities. The analysis of the model outcomes and distribution tests show that among a range of employment statuses, only full-time workers’ out-of-home time expenditure has reached its limit. Also observed is the effect of having children in the household: children reduce the unseen constraints of adult household members’ out-of-home time thus reduce their ability to engage further at out-of-home activities. Even after the out-of-home trips taken into account in the analysis, the model shows that the dependent children’s in-home responsibility will still reduce the ability of individual to travel to and engage at out-of-home activities. The analysis also reveals that compared with the overall population, specific groups (e.g. high income households, younger people) have larger needs of spending minimum travel time and also in doing their out-of-home travel and activities, whilst others (e.g. male, full-time workers) need less travel time to satisfy their minimum travel needs. This study also suggests that the individual out-of-home time expenditure may be a better budget indicator in drawing the constraints in individual space-time prisms than individual travel time budget.