Localisation and identification of melanocyte-stimulating hormones in the fish brain
Kishida, M., Baker, B. I. and Bird, D. J. (1988) Localisation and identification of melanocyte-stimulating hormones in the fish brain. General and Comparative Endocrinology, 71 (2). pp. 229-242. ISSN 0016-6480
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Publisher's URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0016-6480(88)90251-1
The existence of melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) in fish brains was investigated by a range of techniques: radioimmunoassay, HPLC, bioassay, and immunocytochemistry. Immunoreactive αMSH (irαMSH) was detected by radioimmunoassay in all regions of carp and trout brains, with the highest concentration in the basal hypothalamus. In trout, irαMSH cell bodies were located by immunocytochemistry only periventricularly, in the medial basal hypothalamus near the third ventricle, whereas in the carp irαMSH staining was seen both in periventricular cells and also in some of the magnocellular neurones in the lateral hypothalamus. When white-adapted fish were transferred to a black tank for 6 days, the melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) content of the basal hypothalamus of both carp and trout increased 2- and 4.6-fold, respectively, but the αMSH content did not change in either species. Analysis by HPLC of pituitary gland, hypothalamic, and optic tectal extracts revealed that the pituitary contains desacetyl, monoacetyl, and diacetyl αMSH, although the ratio of these forms differed in the two species. The hypothalamus and optic tectum, however, contained predominantly the desacetyl form of αMSH. Bioassays for MSH in the HPLC fractions revealed the existence of presumptive βMSH in both the pituitary and hypothalamus. An argument is advanced that the periventricular irαMSH neurones are homologous with the proopiomelanocortin cells of the arcuate nucleus in mammals, and that the immunocytochemical αMSH-like activity in the MCH neurones may not be authentic αMSH.