A comparative study of the analysis of human urine headspace using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry
Smith, S., Burden, H., Persad, R., Whittington, K., de Lacy Costello, B., Ratcliffe, N. M. and Probert, C. S. (2008) A comparative study of the analysis of human urine headspace using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Journal of Breath Research, 2 (3). 037022. ISSN 1752-7155 Available from: http://eprints.uwe.ac.uk/7082
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Publisher's URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1752-7155/2/3/037022
First-void urine samples were obtained from 24 elderly, asymptomatic men (median age 62.9 years). The headspace above pH adjusted urine samples were extracted using a carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane solid phase micro-extraction fibre and the volatile organic compounds analysed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. A total of 147 compounds were identified in the headspace of urine. The acidified samples recorded a total of 92 compounds, 27 of which were ubiquitous, basified samples 70 compounds, with 12 ubiquitous and unmodified pH samples 49, with 6 ubiquitous. Five compounds were ubiquitous irrespective of pH: acetone, methylene chloride, 4-heptanone, 2-pentanone and 2-butanone. A comparative analysis of unfrozen and frozen–thawed urine (stored at room temperature for 0, 1 and 8 h) showed that samples retained the same number of compounds although variations in the peak areas for some compounds were observed.