Cell signalling following plant/pathogen interactions involves the generation of reactive oxygen and reactive nitrogen species
Hancock, J. T., Desikan, R., Clarke, A., Hurst, R. D. and Neill, S. (2002) Cell signalling following plant/pathogen interactions involves the generation of reactive oxygen and reactive nitrogen species. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, 40 (6-8). pp. 611-617. ISSN 0981-9428
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Publisher's URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0981-9428(02)01403-1
It is now clear that reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and reactive nitrogen species, such as nitric oxide (NO), are produced by plant cells in response to a variety of stresses, including pathogen challenge. Such molecules may be involved in direct defence mechanisms, such as cross-linking of plant cell walls, or as antimicrobial agents. However, it is also apparent that cells generate such reactive species as signalling molecules, produced at controlled levels, and leading to defined responses. Signalling responses to ROS and NO include the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases, and the up- and down-regulation of gene expression, often leading to localised programmed cell death, characteristic of the hypersensitive response. Therefore, ROS and NO are key molecules which may help to orchestrate events following pathogen challenge. Here we review the generation and role of both reactive oxygen and reactive nitrogen species in plant cells.