Access rights for outdoor recreation in New Zealand: Some lessons for open country in England and Wales
Curry, N. (2002) Access rights for outdoor recreation in New Zealand: Some lessons for open country in England and Wales. Journal of Environmental Management, 64 (4). pp. 423-435. ISSN 0301-4797
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Publisher's URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/jema.2001.0525
Access opportunities for outdoor recreation in New Zealand and England and Wales are classified according to their conformity with collective, citizenship or exclusion rights and their degrees of permanence. Alternative criteria for the apportionment of access rights are considered in the context of this classification. Different criteria for rights apportionment are found to be appropriate according to different circumstances in the context of pluralist provision. Policy developments in New Zealand are compared with those in England. After 150 years of a dominance of collective rights in New Zealand current policy is shifting provision towards exclusionary rights. In England, there is a policy shift in the other direction, towards collective rights. Lessons for the development of collective rights in England are drawn from the New Zealand experience in relation to styles of governance, public preferences, public cost, insurance liability and the potential of markets.